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Last Updated: 29.05.23

Medical Interventions (TRT, HGH, Stem Cells, etc.) For Longevity

Sinclair and LaPlante explore cutting-​​edge anti-​​aging interventions. They discuss the latest research on testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), human growth hormone (HGH), peptide supplementation, exosomes, stem cells, and cellular reprogramming.

Key Takeaways

TRT market has grown significantly in recent years

  • Used for sexual dysfunction, mental health, building muscle, overall fitness, and vitality

Testosterone is an “abundance mimetic,” signaling the body that times are good for growth and reproduction

  • Studies show improvements in libido, muscle mass, power, and aerobic capacity

Risks of TRT: worse sleep apnea, larger breasts, bigger prostate, shrinking testicles, increased red blood cell production, blood clots, and potential aggravation of prostate cancer

Eunuchs, who have lower testosterone levels, tend to live longer

Short-​​term benefits of HGH include feeling better, growing muscle, and having less fat

  • Long-​​term use may not be good for health and wellness

Studies show that low levels of growth hormone and insulin-​​like growth hormone signaling can lead to longer lifespans in worms, mice, and humans (e.g., Laron dwarfs)

Abundance mimetics like testosterone and HGH may provide short-​​term benefits but may not be conducive to long-​​term health and longevity

  • Adversity mimetics, which mimic lack of food and exercise, are more likely to promote long-​​term health and wellness

Growth hormone supplementation can have negative effects

  • Increased risk of cancer, heart disease, sore joints, carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Increased insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes risk

Peptides: strings of amino acids, smaller than hormones

  • Help cells communicate with each other
  • Can be synthesized or extracted from tissues

Thousands of clinical studies on peptides

  • Relatively safe, found in the body, metabolized quickly
  • Can boost regenerative signaling, wound healing, lower blood sugar levels, increase mitochondrial activity

Mots C: lowers blood sugar levels, increases mitochondrial activity, reduces fat in the body, improves fatty liver

BP 157: increases blood flow, lowers inflammation, regenerates neurons for cognitive ability

SS 31: targets mitochondria, improves mitochondrial function, potentially good for the heart and longevity

GHK Copper: helps wound healing, attracts immune cells, stimulates collagen, protects tissues against inflammation, reduces fine lines and wrinkles, promotes hair growth

  • Some peptides banned in the United States due to potential side effects and lack of knowledge

Thymusin Alpha One

  • Known since the 1970s
  • Helps fight bacterial and viral infections
  • Banned in 2020, movement to bring it back due to potential COVID-​​19 benefits

Fat loss peptides: Tessamorolin, CJC 1295, Ipamorolin, AOD 964, BPC 157

  • Humanin: helps against type 2 diabetes, high blood sugar, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases (in mice)
  • Pinealon: treats memory, attention deficits, brain injury, stroke, chronic fatigue (early research)
  • Combat fatigue and boost immune system: Dihexa, Cerebralysin, Semax, Selank, BPC 157 with Semax and Cerebralysin

Anecdotal evidence of peptides’ benefits. Need for placebo-​​controlled double-​​blind clinical studies. Always consult with a healthcare professional before making decisions about your health.

Exosomes: cellular signalers, membrane-​​bound vesicles containing peptides, DNA, RNA, and microRNAs

Potential uses of exosomes:

  • Diagnose diseases, including cancer, through blood tests
  • Help with injury and aging by rejuvenating senescent cells

Research on exosomes

  • Dongsheng Cai’s study: mice live longer with isolated exosomes
  • Chinese study: exosomes reverse senescence in ulcer healing

Exosomes not banned in the US, but FDA may have safety concerns

  • Long-​​term benefits and side effects unknown

Stem cells: cells that can divide asymmetrically to produce various tissues

Two types of stem cells

  • Multipotent: can make a few different types of tissues
  • Pluripotent: can make any type of cell in the body

Stem cells typically obtained from an embryo

Shinya Yamanaka discovered a combination of genes that can turn adult cells into pluripotent stem cells

  • This breakthrough allows scientists to take a skin cell and reprogram it into a pluripotent stem cell

Banking younger stem cells can be beneficial for future use in regenerative medicine

Researchers are using stem cells to regenerate and repair damaged tissues in various diseases, such as spinal cord injuries, type 1 diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, ALS, Alzheimer’s, heart disease, stroke, burns, cancer, and arthritis

Stem cells have the potential to replace aging stem cells and create new organs using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) or autologous stem cells from children and adults 

Drawbacks of using stem cells to live longer

  • Often don’t find their niche or resting place
  • Can cause harm if not done correctly (e.g., blindness in Florida patients)

University of Miami study (2017): Harvested stem cells from younger donors given to older, frail patients

  • Showed improvements in walking distance, lowered cytokine levels, improved mental state, and reported quality of life improvement

Wancheng Lu’s discovery: Set of genes that reverse the age of cells and tissues without negative side effects

  • Used three Yamanaka factors (o, S, and K) instead of all five
  • Successfully reversed age in mouse eye cells, skin cells, and muscle cells

Potential for human application

  • Hope to restore vision in human patients with glaucoma or genetic diseases within a year or year and a half
  • Future possibility of a pill to reset age of the whole body

More research and work needed to confirm safety and effectiveness of anti-​​aging treatments

  • Slowing down the biological clock with lifestyle changes can buy time for therapies to mature


We recommend using this distillation as a supplemental resource to the source material.

  • Medical Interventions (TRT, HGH, Stem Cells, etc.) For Longevity

    Lifespan Podcast #5

    Sinclair and LaPlante discuss cutting-​​edge anti-​​aging interventions. Topics include TRT, HGH, peptides, exosomes, stem cells, and cellular reprogramming.

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